What is vertical and horizental Traceability?

Many companies have chosen a best-of-breed approach with task management, code management and numerous test automation tools. Companies that choose a best-of-breed approach solve the traceability challenge with requirements management (RM) tools that provide a complete traceability model and integrations for the best of breed tools. A single ALM tool to cover requirements, risk analysis, system design, task management, code repositories, integration, testing and more is a classic trade-off between best-of-breed capabilities vs. a more limited feature, common platform.

what is horizontal traceability

In transaction processing software, traceability implies use of a unique piece of data (e.g., order date/time or a serialized sequence number) which can be traced through the entire software flow of all relevant application programs. Messages and files at any point in the system can then be audited for correctness and completeness, using the traceability key to find the particular transaction. This is also sometimes referred to as the transaction footprint.

What is a Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM)?

The hierarchy itself, along with creating links between higher level requirements and their lower level counterparts allow to trace the way how the higher level ones were decomposed. Therefore we can create a relation starting from the business needs through to the business requirements related to them, and further, from particular business requirement to the stakeholders requirements (which play a supporting role), ending on solution requirements. This is done to ensure that the requirements/functionalities as in the Specification are all documented as test case.

what is horizontal traceability

The shift to the global economy of the last few decades has been dramatic. And although many complex factors have driven this change, it is safe to say that cost has been the key factor in many company’s decisions to import raw materials or to manufacture in low-cost regional markets. An additional advantage arising from requirements tracing of this type, is that it facilitates the search for inconsistencies (for example, inconsistencies occurring between the different level requirements) and allows easier identification of potential gaps. We may, for example, realize that a certain higher level requirement (e.g., business requirement) does not have any related lower level requirements. This may signal that the requirement was not decomposed correctly and might have been skipped. Thanks to relating requirements this way, we are able to trace the origin of lower level requirements (decomposition of which higher level requirement resulted in certain lower level requirements?).

Verifying That the Schedule Can Be Traced Horizontally and Vertically

This will help you identify your suppliers and understand how their materials and products travel from point A to point B. Off course, there are many advanced systems to manage requirements, such as for example, Jira (and the entire Atlassian ecosystem), solutions provided by Microsoft company, or the Enterprise Architect program, to name just the few. These tools allow to create and manage relations between the requirements in a convenient and effective way. Identifying relationships between requirements and related items helps us to be more consistent and coherent. We can detect and correct inconsistencies quickly and use the same terminology.

The third type of relations which may occur are the ones linking the requirements and other artifacts. These artifacts may be, for example, designs, tests or code (for example, revisions or commits). When creating and tracing these type of relations, we can easily verify if for a given requirement there is one or maybe more designs, or whether a test exists which verifies it, or a piece of code which implements this requirement. In one of my previous posts, I’ve described the classification of requirements and their hierarchy.

What are the benefits of requirements traceability?

Typical analysis functions based on recorded traceability information are, e.g., completeness checks i.e. do all system level requirements go down to equipment level (with or without modification), assessment of requirements deviations over all levels, and qualification status presentation. In order to ensure traceability to artifact types beyond requirements, RM tools often allow to import other artifacts as surrogate requirements that can then be traced with the tool’s requirements tracing methods. The disadvantage of this approach is that different adapters or converters for the different artifact types are necessary that need to have a consistent version and data format. In contrast to ALM tools this consistency must be carried out oneself. Messages and files at any point in the system can then be audited for correctness and completeness, using the traceability software to find the particular transaction and/or product within the supply chain.

what is horizontal traceability

This improves test coverage by mapping test cases back to each requirement. And, as a result, you’ll be able to show that your requirements have been properly implemented. That means tracing forward from requirements to source code to test cases to test runs to issues. You should also be able to trace back from requirements to business goals or objectives (to answer why the requirement is there). Start with supplier mapping, which involves collecting and organizing data on your suppliers, their material sources, and their production processes.

Food processing

This ensures that teams will be able to meet quality standards, produce safe products, and stay competitive. For companies using a horizontally integrated approach when sourcing apparel or textiles, there are solutions that can help reduce the risk and mitigate specific end-product quality concerns. And global companies with large production volumes and diverse and extensive product offerings have higher motivation and vested what is horizontal traceability interest in controlling and monitoring their raw material supply to control both quality and cost. There are six key benefits of using a requirements traceability matrix. A requirements traceability matrix typically includes, at minimum, requirements, test cases, test results, and issues. Requirements traceabiltiy is the capacity to relate your
requirements to one another and to aspects of other project

  • Requirements traceability is the ability to connect requirements to other artifacts — such as different types of software tests or bugs.
  • This will help you identify your suppliers and understand how their materials and products travel from point A to point B.
  • Pre-requirements traceability.[4] Requirements come from different sources, like the business person ordering the product, the marketing manager and the actual user.
  • We may, for example, realize that a certain higher level requirement (e.g., business requirement) does not have any related lower level requirements.

Horizontal traceability is not required to statisfy bidirectional traceability.It identifies the realatinships among related items across work groups or product components for the purpose of avoiding potential conflicts. Vertical traceability identifies the origin of items and follows these same items as they travel through the hierarchy of the work breakdown structure to the project teams and eventually to the customer. The term measurement traceability or metrological traceability is used to refer to an unbroken chain of comparisons relating an instrument’s measurements to a known standard. Calibration to a traceable standard can be used to determine an instrument’s bias, precision, and accuracy.

Key aspects of material traceability:

Traceability is an important aspect for example in the automotive industry, where it makes recalls possible, or in the food industry where it contributes to food safety. It helps them prove compliance and deliver quality products that are safe for patient use. Heavily regulated industries need traceability to prove compliance. Weak traceability can make it difficult to meet goals, run the right tests, make decisions, and manage projects.

Consumer tastes and increasing global concerns have posed a challenge to horizontally integrated companies to include and invest in resources to properly test, quality manage and trace production to improve overall accountability. The traceability matrix can be used to help manage which requirements are validated, which are pending, and which have been rejected. It also helps in identifying which requirements correspond to a specific release. In Helix ALM, you can create test cases from requirements, test runs from test cases, and issues from test runs.

Building a Work Item Type Intersection Traceability Matrix

A clock providing traceable time is traceable to a time standard such as Coordinated Universal Time or International Atomic Time. In the production of general hard goods, it is common to place a barcode, a QR code, or an RFID chip, on the parts or on the bin that travels with the parts. But you can make it easier to demonstrate that you’ve fulfilled compliance regulations.

Manual traceability

Additionally, we are able to tell which set of the lower level requirements must be implemented in order to have the higher level requirement fulfilled. This in turn, allows us to determine consequences of making changes to particular requirements, or removing some of them altogether. Being aware of how the requirements relate to each other allows us to know which elements are connected to the bit we want to change or remove. It also enables potential impact analysis of the proposed change.

In business analysis, we carry out traceability to ensure that the requirements are approved and managed correctly throughout the project lifecycle. The manually intensive aspect tightly links requirements matrices to version control; each time a requirements document is updated, the matrix must be thoroughly reviewed as well. Nonetheless, requirements matrices are quite useful for many organizations and analysts, depending on the size of the project and the level of granularity needed. You can easily use this matrix to update relationships in your project, identify orphaned requirements, and ensure Test Coverage. This video shows you how to create an Intersection RTM using the work items from your project. In logistics, traceability refers to the capability for tracing goods along the distribution chain on a batch number or series number basis.

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